The Bent Pyramid is the most eye-catching of the four pyramids at Dahshur. It was built by the Pharaoh Senefru, the father of Cheops and founder of the 4th Dynasty. The bent pyramid in Dahshur is also known as the rhomboidal or false pyramid because at a point halfway up, the angle of inclination is reduced by a little over 10 degrees. The base of the pyramid is square with each side measuring about 620 feet. Its original height was 336 feet and it is interesting to note that its outer limestone casing has been preserved more than any other pyramid. Perhaps the most popular reason for why the pyramid is bent is that it needed to be finished quicker than was originally planned. Others have suggested that the interior would not have held or would have collapsed under the originally intended height. A subsidiary pyramid and mortuary temple can also be seen next to the pyramid, and are part of the pyramid complex. The bent pyramid is also commonly referred to as the north pyramid of Senefru. The south pyramid of Senefru is located about 2.5 km away from its partner and is extremely large in volume. In fact, it is only second to the Cheops pyramid in its size.
The remains of the pyramid complex’s valley temple lie about a kilometer west of the Nile Valley, about half way between between the pyramid and the Nile river. There may have in A drawing of the Mortuary temple of the Bent Pyramid fact been a second causeway that lead down to a dock or landing stage. It is the first valley temple we know of to be connected to a pyramid complex, and so it has been fairly well investigated archaeologically. However, it may have been preceded by a valley temple that at Medium, though the investigation of that structure is hampered by high water levels. In reality, the Bent Pyramid’s prelude to the valley temple is in fact part valley temple and part mortuary temple, containing elements of both types of structures.
The Bent Pyramid valley temple is rectangular and north-south oriented. It was built of fine white limestone, with an entrance in the middle of the south facade. The entrance was framed with wooden pillars with pennants. During the Middle Kingdom, a limestone stele from the tomb of Snefru’s son, Netjeraperef was used to frame the entrance doorway.